Overlanding is a type of off-roading activity that involves self-sufficient travel through remote areas, often in 4×4 vehicles. While overlanding can be an incredibly rewarding and exhilarating experience, it can also be challenging and unpredictable. That’s why it’s important for overlanders to have basic car repair skills to ensure that they can handle any issues that may arise on the road. In this article, I’ll outline some of the essential car repair skills that every overlander should know.
Keep in mind that while most of these repairs can be done by anyone, anywhere, some might be a bit outside of your expertise. And that’s okay! Assuming the car still drives, some of these repairs are better done by a professional at a service shop, or at home where you have access to more equipment. That said, if you anticipate needing to do any of these repairs while on the road, it’s important to carry the appropriate tools with you.
Table of Contents
Changing a Tire
One of the most basic car repair skills that all drivers should have is how to change a tire. For overlanders, this skill is especially important, as they often travel long distances and on rough terrain. When changing a tire, it’s important to first ensure that the vehicle is parked safely and securely, with the handbrake engaged and the vehicle in gear (or in “Park” if it’s an automatic). Then, follow these steps:
- Locate the spare tire, jack, and lug wrench (these should be stored in the vehicle).
- Loosen the lug nuts on the flat tire, but don’t remove them yet.
- Position the jack under the vehicle in the designated spot (usually indicated by an arrow or a notch).
- Raise the vehicle until the flat tire is off the ground.
- Remove the lug nuts and the flat tire.
- Mount the spare tire and tighten the lug nuts (but not too tightly).
- Lower the vehicle and remove the jack.
- Tighten the lug nuts as much as possible with the lug wrench.
Changing a tire in difficult terrain (such as mud or sand) can be more challenging, and may require additional steps or tools. Overlanders should also carry a spare tire and a tire repair kit, which can be used to temporarily repair small punctures or cuts in the tire until it can be replaced.
Basic Engine Maintenance
Regular engine maintenance is crucial for preventing breakdowns and other serious issues. Overlanders should know how to check and change the oil, replace air filters, and change spark plugs. Here’s a step-by-step guide for each of these tasks:
Checking and Changing the Oil
- Locate the dipstick (usually indicated by a yellow handle).
- Pull out the dipstick and wipe it clean.
- Reinsert the dipstick and pull it out again to check the oil level. The oil should be between the “Full” and “Add” marks.
- If the oil is low, add more oil until it reaches the “Full” mark.
To change the oil, locate the oil drain plug and oil filter (these may be different depending on the makes and models of vehicles), as well as oil and an oil filter wrench. Here’s how to change the oil:
- Warm up the engine for a few minutes (this will help the oil flow more easily).
- Locate the oil drain plug and place a drain pan underneath.
- Remove the drain plug and let the oil drain out.
- Replace the drain plug and remove the old oil filter (using the oil filter wrench).
- Lubricate the new oil filter gasket with some new oil.
- Install the new oil filter and add new oil (using the dipstick to check the level).
Replacing Air Filters
Air filters help prevent dirt and debris from entering the engine. Overlanders should know how to inspect and replace air filters, which can become clogged with dust and other particles over time. Here’s how to replace an air filter:
- Locate the air filter housing (this may be under the hood or in the engine bay).
- Remove the cover
- Take out the old air filter and clean the housing if needed.
- Install the new air filter (making sure it’s oriented correctly).
- Replace the cover and ensure that it’s securely in place.
Changing Spark Plugs
Spark plugs ignite the fuel in the engine, and can become dirty or worn over time. Depending on manufacturer specifications, they should be replaced every 30,000 to 100,000 miles, to keep the engine running smoothly. Other signs the spark plugs need to be changed include engine misfires, rough idling, engine knocking, poor fuel efficiency, difficulty starting engine, or the engine light is on. Here’s how to change spark plugs:
- Locate the spark plugs (these may be under the hood or in the engine bay).
- Remove the spark plug wire from the first spark plug.
- Use a spark plug socket and extension to remove the old spark plug.
- Check the new spark plug gap (this may vary depending on the make and model of vehicle) and adjust if necessary.
- Install the new spark plug and tighten it with the spark plug socket.
- Repeat for the other spark plugs.
Many overlanders rely on electrical systems for lighting, refrigeration, and communication. Knowing how to troubleshoot electrical issues and make minor repairs is crucial. Here are some common electrical issues that overlanders may encounter, and how to troubleshoot them:
- Check that the battery connections are clean and secure.
- Try jumpstarting the vehicle with another battery or a portable jump starter.
- If the battery is still dead, it may need to be replaced.
- Locate the fuse box (this may be under the dash or in the engine bay).
- Check the fuses to see if any are blown (the metal wire inside will be broken).
- Replace the blown fuse with a new one of the same amperage.
- Turn off all electrical components.
- Inspect the wiring for any signs of damage or wear.
- If you find a damaged wire, repair or replace it.
- If you can’t find the source of the problem, seek professional help.
- Overlanders should also carry spare fuses and electrical tape, which can be used to make temporary repairs.
Repairing Minor Body Damage
Overlanding can take a toll on a vehicle, and minor body damage is not uncommon. This can include small dents, scratches, or chips in the paint. While major body damage may require professional repair, overlanders can learn how to fix some types of minor damage themselves. Here are some steps to repair different types of minor body damage:
- For small dents, use a plunger or vacuum to pop out the dent. First, wet the area around the dent with water. Then, place the plunger or vacuum over the dent and push or pull until the dent pops out.
- For scratches or chips in the paint, use touch-up paint to cover the damaged area. Start by cleaning the area with car-safe soap and water. Then, sand the area with fine-grit sandpaper and clean it again. Apply a small amount of touch-up paint to the scratch or chip and let it dry. Repeat until the paint is level with the surrounding surface.
- For small rust spots, use sandpaper to remove the rust and then apply a rust converter. Rust converter is a type of chemical that reacts with the rust and turns it into a stable compound that can be painted over. Once the rust converter has dried, apply touch-up paint to the area.
Repairing and Replacing Belts and Hoses
Belts and hoses are important components of the engine that can wear out quickly when driving on rough terrain. Overlanders should know how to inspect and replace belts and hoses. Here’s how to do it:
- Check the belts and hoses for signs of wear, such as cracks or fraying.
- If a belt or hose is damaged, replace it with a new one (following the instructions in the vehicle’s manual).
- Make sure the new belt or hose is tightened to the correct tension.
Brake System Maintenance
Being able to stop safely in all kinds of conditions is extremely important with all types of driving. Knowing how to inspect and replace brake pads and rotors is important for overlanding safety. Signs that your brakes need replacing include grinding or squeaking noises, burning smell, reduced brake performance, vibrating or pulsating, or a warning light. You should also aim to get your brakes checked at least once a year, or every 12,000 miles. Here’s how to replace brakes and rotors yourself:
Overlanders who drive on rough terrain can put a lot of stress on their suspension systems. Knowing how to inspect and repair shocks, struts, and other components can prevent major problems on the road. Signs your suspension needs replacing include bumpier than usual rides, nosediving when braking, loud clunking, rattling, or banging, uneven tire wear, or drifting and pulling. Here’s how to replace an entire suspension system:
Stay Safe on the Road
In conclusion, overlanding can be an amazing adventure that requires some basic car repair skills to ensure a smooth and safe journey. Whether you’re dealing with changing a tire, replacing belts and hoses, troubleshooting electrical issues, repairing minor body damage, maintaining the brake system, or repairing the suspension, learning these skills can help prevent unexpected breakdowns and keep you on the road. Keep in mind that while most of these repairs can be done by anyone, anywhere, some may be better left to professionals. And if you anticipate needing to do any of these repairs while on the road, it’s important to carry the appropriate tools with you. With the right skills, tools, and preparation, overlanders can enjoy the freedom and excitement of the open road with confidence and peace of mind. Make sure to explore the videos in this post for more comprehensive lessons in essential car repairs. Save this post so that you can recall it when needed.